charged balls confined to a plane: a 2-d model system
A. Ewing, Proc. Roy. Soc. [London] 48, 342 (1890); Phil. Mag.
30, 205 (1890)] Ewing was the first to deduce the origin
of hysteresis and magnetic remnance by analogy with a square
array of gimbled magnets.
Bragg, J. Sci. Instr. 19, 148 (1942); L. Bragg and J. F. Nye,
Proc. Roy. Soc. A190, 474 (1947); L. Bragg and W. M. Lomer,
Proc. Roy. Soc. A196, 171 (1949). Bragg and Nye's elegant
experiments on bubble rafts, illustrated (among other effects)
dislocation movement in solids
C. Rose-Innes and E. A. Stangham, Cryogenics 9, 456 (1969)
Meissner, Cryogenics 14, 36 (1974)
(1947) refers to earlier, unnamed work on crystal model
systems. These included magnets on corks floating on water,
and floating disks attracted by capillary action
Pieranski, Contemp. Phys. 24, 25 (1983)
Yarmchuk, M.J.V. Gordon and R.E. Packard, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43,
J. Campbell and Robert Ziff, Los Alamos Scientific Lab Report
McBride of Yale points out that "experiments described in J.J.
Thomson, Chapter VI of "The Corpuscular Theory of Matter",
(1907) with magnetized needles in floating corks discovered
additional meta-stable states. His tables of "the various
rings for corpuscles" is based on his previously published
mathematical analysis (Philosophical Magazine, Series 6,
Volume 7, Number 39 March 1904, p. 237-265) for a set of negatively
charged corpuscles held within a sphere of equivalent uniform
positive charge (related to what came to be called the "plum
pudding" atom). For solvability he assumed that the
corpuscles were constrained to a plane within the sphere.
then compared his analytical results with those from experiments
with floating corks "a method introduced for a different
purpose by an American physicist, Professor Mayer," and for
iron spheres floating in mercury and induced by a large magnet
placed above them (R. W. Wood). He also refers to Monckman's
electrostatic analogue using vertically floating needles "electrified
by induction by a charged body held above the surface of the water."
He states that in all cases the two-dimensional patterns are "analogous",
whatever that means. (He gives no specific literature references
in the book) ".
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